JANUARY 13 - TODAY IN MILITARY HISTORY
13 JANUARY/ TODAY IN MILITARY HISTORY:
◆858 Battle of Aclea: Danes defeat Wessex.
◆1099 Crusaders burn Mara, Syria.
◆1649 The Fronde rebels storm the Bastille.
◆1813 Captain Oliver Hazard Perry arrives in Presque Isle (Michigan) where he will supervise the construction of a flotilla. Two brigs, a schooner, and three gunboats will be constructed from materials transported overland and by inland waterway from Philadelphia, by way of Pittsburgh, in preparation for the naval battle for Lake Erie.
◆1838 Canadian rebels surrender their arms to US militamen along the Canadian frontier. Many rebels took refuge in the northern United States, where, with the help of American supporters, they formed secret friends called Hunters' Lodges to renew the rebellion. The lodges will conduct several raids across the border, leading to another short-lived rising in Lower Canada (Quebec).
◆1842 Battle of Gandamak: Afghans overwhelm the 44th Foot, completing the destruction of the British Army in their country.
◆1846 President James Polk dispatched General Zachary Taylor and 4,000 troops to the Texas Border as war with Mexico loomed.★
◆1865 2nd Battle of Fort Fisher.★
◆1865 After the failure of his December expedition against Fort Fisher, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler was relieved of command.
◆1915 Montenegro falls to Austria-Hungary.★
◆1929 Wyatt Earp died after an illustrious life in the West.★
◆1937 The United States bars US citizens from serving in the Spanish Civil War.
◆1942 German U-Boats begin operations of the US East Coast. The move is called operation Paukenschlag (Drum Roll).★
◆1942 Japanese attacks on Bataan continue and, although they make progress on the east side of the peninsula, they are still held on the west.
◆1942 Allied representatives meeting in London announce that Axis war criminals will be punished after the war.
◆1943 US forces on Guadalcanal further develop their offensive, advancing westward along the north coast as well as attacking parallel to this advance further inland.
◆1943 General Eichelberger, an American, is given overall command of the fighting troops on New Guinea.
◆1945 East Prussian Offensive begins.★
◆1945 Near the Philippines the escort carrier Salamaua is badly damaged in a Kamikaze attack. These are now becoming rare, however, because most of the Kamikaze aircraft have been lost and the rest withdrawn. Ashore, the US bridgehead is being extended and Damortis is taken.
◆1945 In the Ardennes, units of the US First Army and the British XXX Corps from the west reach the Ourthe River between Laroche and Houffalize. Third Army forces are also moving on Houffalize.
◆1952 Ten Okinawa-based Superfortresses dropped 396 high explosive 500-pound bombs on the railroad bridge east of Sinanju across the Chongchong River, rendering the bridge unserviceable.
◆1962 Operation Farm Gate.★
◆1964 USS Manley evacuates 54 American and 36 allied nationals after Zanzibar government is overthrown.
◆1965 Two U.S. planes were shot down in Laos while on a combat mission.
◆1967 Military coup in Togo.
◆1968 The U.S. reported shifting most air targets from North Vietnam to Laos.
◆1972 President Nixon announces that 70,000 U.S. troops will leave South Vietnam over the next three months, reducing U.S. troop strength there by May 1 to 69,000 troops.
◆1980 The United States offered Pakistan a two-year aid plan to counter the Soviet threat in Afghanistan.
◆1993 American and allied warplanes raided southern Iraq.
Medal of Honor Citations for Actions Taken This Day
BESSEY, CHARLES A.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Elkhorn Creek, Wyo., 13 January 1877. Entered service at: - - - . Birth: Reading, Mass. Date of issue: 15 May 1890. Citation. While scouting with 4 men and attacked in ambush by 14 hostile Indians, held his ground, 2 of his men being wounded, and kept up the fight until himself wounded in the side, and then went to the assistance of his wounded comrades.